The DMA applies to companies that operate large online platforms meeting specific criteria, such as having a significant impact on digital markets, acting as intermediaries between businesses and users, and enjoying a durable position of market power with significant influence over innovation. These platforms will be subject to enhanced regulatory obligations and scrutiny under the DMA. The DMA’s requirements protect online users in the European Union, European Economic Area, and the UK. The DMA does not apply outside of these areas, even though the currently designated gatekeeper companies are headquartered in the USA and China.
The six gatekeepers designated by the European Commission are:
- Meta (owner of Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, and others)
- Alphabet (owner of Google and Android)
- ByteDance (owner of TikTok)
Although the DMA applies to these gatekeepers, smaller businesses should also be aware of and understand the law, as it’ll directly impact how they use the large online platforms and services owned by gatekeepers. Business owners will be responsible for following the compliance rules imposed by digital services such as those from Google and Amazon.