Google Privacy Sandbox
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Google Privacy Sandbox explained: Respecting user privacy online

Google's Privacy Sandbox is redefining online privacy, shaping a future where user data is protected. Explore how this initiative is revolutionizing digital advertising and safeguarding your online experience.
by Usercentrics
May 17, 2024
Google Privacy Sandbox
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In an era where online privacy is an increasing concern, Google’s Privacy Sandbox has the goal to stand as an initiative in safeguarding user privacy and shaping the future of digital advertising. It aims to combine privacy with online marketing by redefining the way user data is handled, thereby addressing the challenges posed by the deprecation of third-party cookies and fostering a more secure and private online environment.


As the digital landscape evolves, the Google Privacy Sandbox offers a glimpse into a future where user privacy should play a big role, transforming the way we interact with the web and mobile apps.

What is the Google Privacy Sandbox initiative?

Google Privacy Sandbox is an initiative designed to protect user privacy by restricting cross-site tracking through the deprecation of third-party cookies in the Chrome browser. The initiative has the goal of limiting website access to third-party cookies by default, reducing the ability to track user activity across different websites.

Furthermore, the Google Privacy Sandbox initiative encompasses various measures that directly contribute to enhancing data security, and it also aims to develop more private alternatives for sites and services that rely on third-party cookies, providing a responsible approach to phasing out third-party cookies in Chrome.


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Why did Google initiate the Privacy Sandbox?

Google initiated the Privacy Sandbox in response to the need for new web and app technologies that improve people’s privacy online. This initiative addresses the negative impact of restricting or removing existing mechanisms like third-party cookies without effective alternatives, which can compromise user privacy and ecosystem functionality.


Google’s Privacy Sandbox has three core goals:

1. Build new technology to keep users’ information private


Google’s Privacy Sandbox aims to develop effective and privacy-enhancing advertising solutions for web and mobile. The initiative focuses on limiting the sharing of user data with third-parties and exploring technologies to reduce covert data collection.

2. Enable publishers and developers to keep online content free


The Privacy Sandbox is designed to provide substantial notice ahead of any future changes and support existing ad platform features for at least two years. It seeks to ensure a healthy web and app ecosystem by evolving digital advertising to improve user privacy while giving developers and businesses the tools they need to succeed in the digital space.

3. Collaborate with the industry to build new internet privacy standards


Google is committed to working closely with regulators and industry partners to improve ads privacy on Android. They invite organizations to participate and provide feedback on the initial design proposals for the Privacy Sandbox. Additionally, Google plans to release developer previews and provide regular updates on designs and timelines for the initiative.

Who does Google Privacy Sandbox impact?

The Google Privacy Sandbox initiative has a far-reaching impact, affecting web browsers, online publishers, ad tech companies, advertisers, developers, app developers, and users. Here’s a breakdown of the impact on different stakeholders:

Web browsers, online publishers, ad tech companies, advertisers, and developers


They are invited to participate in the development and testing of the proposed new technologies for the open web and Android platforms. Additionally, they can contribute to public discussions in forums such as the W3C.

App developers


The Privacy Sandbox on Android aims to provide tools that app developers need to support and grow their businesses while strengthening privacy.

Web and Android app users


The Privacy Sandbox initiative is designed to improve people’s privacy across the Web and apps on Android, allowing them to enjoy their browsing and app experience without worrying about their personal information being collected.

What does Privacy Sandbox consist of?

1. Privacy Sandbox for web


The Privacy Sandbox for the Web is designed to phase out third-party cookies and limit covert tracking by creating new web standards, providing publishers with safer alternatives, and ensuring user data privacy. Some of the key privacy techniques to be used include differential privacy, k-anonymity, and on-device processing.


Privacy Sandbox also helps to limit other forms of tracking, like fingerprinting, by restricting the amount of information sites can access so that your information stays private, safe, and secure.

2. Privacy Sandbox for Android


Privacy Sandbox on Android aims to strengthen privacy and provide app developers with tools to support and grow their businesses. It introduces new solutions that operate without cross-app identifiers and limit data sharing with third parties, including safer ways for apps to integrate with third-party developers, helping apps remain free through ads while users’ data stays protected.

What are the proposed solutions under the Privacy Sandbox initiative?

Chrome and other ecosystem stakeholders have offered more than 30 proposals to date, which can be found in the public resources of W3C groups. These proposals cover a wide variety of use cases and requirements. The Privacy Sandbox timeline shows the current status and schedule for proposals.


The proposed solutions of the Privacy Sandbox cover the following areas:

1. Strengthening cross-site privacy boundaries


  • CHIPS: Allows developers to opt-in a cookie to partitioned storage, with a separate cookie jar per top-level site.
  • Related website sets: Allows related domain names owned by the same entity to declare themselves as belonging to the same first party.
  • Shared storage: Creates a general-purpose API that allows sites to store and access unpartitioned cross-site data.

2. Showing relevant content and ads


  • Topics API: Enables interest-based advertising without the use of third-party cookies or tracking user behavior across sites.
  • Protected audience API: Enables ad selection to serve remarketing and custom audience use cases, designed so that it cannot be used by third-parties to track user browsing behavior across sites.

3. Measuring digital ads


  • Attribution reporting: Allows correlation of ad clicks or ad views with conversions.
  • Private aggregation API: Generates noisy summary reports with cross-site data.

4. Preventing covert tracking


  • User-agent reduction and user-agent client hints: Limits passively shared browser data to reduce the volume of sensitive information which leads to fingerprinting.
  • IP Protection: Improves user privacy by protecting their IP address from being used for tracking.
  • Bounce tracking mitigations: A proposal to reduce or eliminate bounce tracking’s ability to recognize people across contexts.
  • Privacy budget: Limits the amount of individual user data exposed to sites to prevent covert tracking.

5. Fighting spam and fraud on the web


  • Private state tokens: Allow websites to convey a limited amount of information from one browsing context to another without passive tracking to help combat fraud.

Impact of Google's Privacy Sandbox on digital advertising

The Privacy Sandbox initiative by Google is set to have a profound impact on the landscape of digital advertising, particularly concerning the targeting capabilities of online advertisers and the overall strategies of various entities involved in online advertising.


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Here are the key points to consider:

1. Loss of passive user identification


Google’s removal of third-party cookies and the potential obfuscation of Chrome users’ IP addresses will eliminate passive methods for advertisers to identify users individually across the web.

2. Shift to first-party data strategy


With the potential removal of passive identification methods, many publishers and advertisers are transitioning to a first-party data strategy, which involves collecting email addresses directly from users. However, this approach necessitates a large user footprint and an alternative identifier strategy.

3. Challenges for small publishers


Some publishers may lack the audience size necessary to establish an alternative ID strategy, especially if they rely on passerby readers or logged-out users.

4. Effect on advertising spend


The initiative may lead to a shift in advertising spend from open web advertising to more effective platforms, as well as towards Google’s higher-margin channels.

5. Impact on adtech vendors


Delays in the industry-wide deployment of the Privacy Sandbox could disproportionately hurt advertising technology vendors that are innovating new opportunities for publishers and advertisers in the post-cookie era.

6. Challenges in Privacy Sandbox API integrations


Google has proposed Privacy Sandbox APIs to address various advertising use cases, including retargeting, demographic/interest-based targeting, frequency capping, and attribution reporting.


However, integrating these APIs is a monumental task that will require substantial resources, potentially leading to a shift in advertising spend to other platforms.

7. Challenges in mobile advertising


The Privacy Sandbox for Android will deprecate identifiers similar to Apple’s iOS, presenting challenges for mobile marketers in terms of audience identification and attribution.


Unlike Apple’s approach, Google aims to replace user-level identifiers with a set of APIs supporting advertising use-cases without relying on identifiers, which presents unique challenges for mobile advertising.

The Google cookie crisis refers to the phasing out of third-party cookies in Chrome, which has been a significant development in the effort to enhance user privacy.


Google had initially planned to complete this phase-out during the second half of 2024 as part of its Privacy Sandbox initiative. However, due to ongoing challenges and the need to reconcile divergent feedback from the industry, regulators, and developers, Google has indicated that it will not complete third-party cookie deprecation during the second half of Q4 2024.


Google remains committed to engaging closely with regulatory bodies and hopes to conclude the process this year, envisioning a potential start to the third-party cookie deprecation early next year, assuming an agreement is reached. These updates are part of the quarterly reports published by Google and the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority to keep the ecosystem informed about the timeline for phasing out third-party cookies in Chrome.


The Privacy Sandbox infrastructure is undergoing changes in response to these challenges. The plan is to gradually phase out third-party cookies beginning in Q3 of this year, with the timeline being updated monthly by the Chrome team on the Privacy Sandbox website.


However, the confusion persists as to how advertisers can prepare for the post-cookie world, as the Privacy Sandbox is primarily an infrastructure change in the back-end for adtech platforms and not a front-end element that can be directly tested by individual advertisers.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is the Privacy Sandbox in Google Chrome?

The Privacy Sandbox in Google Chrome is an initiative aimed at improving web privacy for users while providing publishers and developers with tools to build successful businesses. It includes features such as Topics, a proposal for interest-based advertising, and robust user controls. Users can access chrome://settings/adPrivacy to manage their Privacy Sandbox settings and delete ad-measurement data.

What is FLEDGE Privacy Sandbox?

Privacy Sandbox FLEDGE (First Locally-Executed Decision over Groups Experiment) services for Chrome and Android is a part of the Privacy Sandbox initiative that aims to improve web privacy for users while providing support for online businesses through advertising. It focuses on enabling ad selection and measurement without revealing individual user data.

What is FLoC Privacy Sandbox?

FLoC (Federated Learning of Cohorts) was an earlier proposal in the Google Chrome Privacy Sandbox for interest-based advertising. However, it has been replaced by Topics, a new proposal that ensures user privacy and transparency by allowing browsers to determine a handful of topics based on the user’s browsing history.

What are the Privacy Sandbox APIs in Google Chrome?

The Privacy Sandbox APIs include features such as Protected Audience, Shared Storage, Attribution Reporting, and Fenced Frames, which aim to provide interest-based advertising without third-party cookies or other user identifiers that track individuals across sites. Users and sites can control and manage these APIs through user controls available in Chrome settings.

What is the purpose of Tracking Protection in the Google Chrome Privacy Sandbox?

Tracking Protection, a new feature being tested in Chrome, aims to limit cross-site tracking by restricting website access to third-party cookies by default. This is a key milestone in the Privacy Sandbox initiative to phase out third-party cookies for everyone.

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